depend especially on the affective state. Such increased imaginableness may be visible in altered brain activity, on which future studies may shed some light. Nonetheless, is has also been argued that the inner pacemaker is influenced by physiological arousal (Zakay and Block, 1997 ). Studies of patient populations and drugs indicate variations in the scaling of musical events attributable to the deceleration and acceleration of the internal clock and the internal representation of perceived elements when reproducing or estimating time intervals in the millisecond-to-second and the second-to-minute ranges (Meck. For Rouget ( 1985 music creates emotional conditions, and it structures the chronological order of symbolic events, especially in ceremonial settings in which it is intended to alter consciousness states for individual or group ritual purposes. This eventually means that we have an experience of the flow of time only because we have conscious access to our memory. In sum, memory-based models can account for the observation that people overestimate temporal durations in retrospect under the influence of music. This has not yet been investigated with regard to music listening. We first discuss approaches related to potential neuronal correlates of an inner clock and then present evidence specifically related to absorption and ASCs. Brain areas that seem to be involved in time processing include the insula (Wittmann., the orbitofrontal cortex (Berlin., the auditory cortex (Sysoeva., the cerebellum (Teki., the posterior right parietal cortex (Alexander., the basal ganglia (Teki.
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The dopaminergic system apparently governs the processing of durations up to about.5 or 1 s, whereas the serotonergic system governs the processing of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range (e.g., Wittmann., Wackermann., ; Sysoeva., ). With reference to Kant, Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, James, and others, scholars have delineated a model of the phenomenology of temporality, the flow of time, and the experience of what we call the present or the now (e.g., Varela, 1999a, b ; Gallagher and Varela, 2003. The first is centered around the subjective flow of time; the second is Flaherty's ( 1999 ) philosophicalsociological model. That is, absorption and ASCs do not provide an alternative explanation for the effects of music on psychological timing but they can provide an explanation for how these effects are mediated by additional variables such as the music's emotional expression, its likability, and the personality. In sum, attention-based approaches in their current form can explain somebut by no means allof the findings about the influence of music on the estimation of time intervals. Because music can induce emotions it might also modulate the activity of the locus coeruleus norepinephrine system, which influences the speed of internal processes such as working memory performance, decision processes, or behavioral responses (see Arstila, ). It remains a task for future research to determine in much more detail if and how music affects these neurotransmitter systems. Phenomenological models, some scholars have suggested that what we call time perception might be better understood as a mental construction that is continuously updated during ordinary mental functioning (see Fraisse, 1963, ; Thomas and Brown, 1974 ; Block and Reed, 1978 ; Poynter, ;. (As Julian Barnes puts it in his lovely novel The Sense of an Ending, this personal time, which is the true time, is measured in your relationship to memory.) The phenomenological model of temporality further states that the number and order of perceivable stimuli that. Central to the model is the notion that the relationship between the experience of time and the temporal structure of events in the real physical world is neither linear nor following a fixed rhythm or pulse. A constant musical rhythm together with monotonous and repetitive elements seems to lead the listener to states of absorption, trance, or ecstasy, where the focus of attention turns to an inner view.
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